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Promotion of physical activity and motivation of exercise by self determination theory.


Exercise or any form of activities and diet are now a key factor in promoting a good sustainable health in a public, in this fast growing technology people find very less time to do any kind of physical activity. There are findings which state that people find difficult to get engaged in physical exercise or sports. “Insufficient physical activity is 1 of the 10 leading risk factors for death worldwide” was stated by WHO. Global statistics states that 81% of adolescence ages between 11 to 17 years were not active sufficiently. Motivation is now key factor in promoting physical activity this motivation is the can be determined by Self-Determination Theory (SDT) which was developed by the researchers.

Self-Determination Theory (SDT)

In 1970s, research based on self-determination theory (SDT) evolved from studies comparing the intrinsic and extrinsic need, and from development discernment of the intrinsic motivation played in an individual's behavior, but it was until the mid-1980s that selfdetermination theory SDT was formally introduced and accepted as a sound empirical theory. Researchers have applied the selfdetermination theory SDT to different field in social psychology has increased considerably since the 2000s. Self-determination theory (SDT) is a hypothesis of human inspiration in identity the personality development and the psychological development. The inspiration in driving decisions, the individuals make without any obstruction. SDT concentrates on how much an individual's conduct is self-propelled and self-decided. 

Self-Determination Theory (SDT) was first introduced by the two researchers namely (Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan). Theory focus mainly on the development of human personality and optimal functioning by motivation .It does not focus only on motivation but the types and methods of motivation is focused. Most of the studies have led to the emergence of self-determination theory (SDT ) that includes research on intrinsic need and Intrinsic motive refers to initiating an natural action for its own interest because it is interesting and satisfying in itself, as opposed to doing an activity to obtain an external goal (extrinsic motivation). Different types of motivations have been described based on the stage they have been internalized or externalized. Incorporation refers to the active attempt to transform an extrinsic motive into personally endorsed values and thus assimilate behavioural regulations that were originally external. Albert Edward L. Deci and Richard Ryan later expanded their early work on differentiating between intrinsic and extrinsic motives and proposed three main intrinsic needs involved in self-determination. According to Deci and Ryan, the three psychological needs motivating the self to initiate behavior and specify requirements that are essential for psychological health and well-being of an body. These needs are said to be universal joint, innate and psychological and include the need for competency, self-sufficiency, and psychological relatedness.

Basic psychological needs

Any problem statement and the prediction to the statement is from the three basic psychological need

  1. Competence
  2. Relatedness
  3. Autonomy.
    • First, the need of competence is to control the environment and his outcomes. By knowing how things will happen and the results expected.
    • Secondly, the need to “interact with, and get connected with the experienced people.
    • Thirdly, Autonomy is the independent means of doing things without any motivation.
  4. Deci and Ryan of Self-Determination Theory (SDT) stated that Autonomy is not the freedom but having an attitude or self determination to do things without any controlled motivation.

Different types of motivation:

Researchers have shown that the motivation is the important quality for any success; there are two kinds of motivation based by the two psychologist researcher Deci and Rya.

  1. Autonomous motivation
  2. Controlled Motivation:
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