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Summarizing three articles Cross Cultural Indicators of Independent Learning in Young Children: A Jordanian Case Creative Independent Learning for Developing Students' Professional Competencies Guided independent learning: a teaching and learning approach for adult learners.



This paper explores the independent learning level among young children aged between 5-6 years in Jordan and compares it to other cultures. For this purpose, sample of 60 pre-schoolers were studied who were assessed against Arabic version of observational instrument, Child’s Independent Learning Development by teachers. These samples were judged based on variables such as engagement level, gender, family size and parent’s education. It was found that preschoolers from Jordon showed similar independent learning level to that showed by preschoolers of other cultures. However, further studies can find non-verbal as well as verbal pointers of independent learning among pre-schoolers. The study indicates that parents and teachers of Jordon must ponder that young children are independent learners if engaged with interactive activities of learning. However, the study may not be considered as definitive.


This article intends to present a new method in teaching non-traditional adult learner students by using techniques and methods that align with their needs, interest and strengths. This paper discusses a modular approach of learning which is on the basis of guided independent learning (GIL),that provides direction through the instructor for maintaining self-directed and autonomous experience. Engaging the modular approach of GIL may be maintained by technology that include Web 2.0 tools, course management systems, and distance learning that can help to bridge variances in work, schedules, as well as family responsibilities, also improving availability for attending classes. Constructivism, Andragogy, authentic activities, experiential learning, and collaboration are few of the approaches and techniques that may be used to plan modules of GIL, even though it is to be stressed on the choice of methodologies that may be affected by level course material, as well as desired outcomes of learning. The paper evaluates the new method in teaching non-traditional adult learner students by revealing various problem in organizing creative independent learning. However, the study found that the despite the problems, students enrolled for quality management program were provided professional competencies development.


This paper identifies the pedagogical and organizational conditions to form the professional competencies for independent learning of students of bachelor’s degree of quality management program. The researcher has used theoretical as well as empirical methods for identifying these conditions. Empirical study involved survey of 14 teachers and 94 students by conducting interviews for them. As per the research, four pedagogical and organizational conditions were found for developing professional competencies in independent learning, namely; motivational, communicative, didactic, and infrastructural. In addition, the paper also discusses the problems in the process of organizing development of professional competencies through creative independent learning. However, the main limitation is that not much emphasis is led on the how to resolve these issues faced in organizing development of professional competencies.

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