Required to develop a numerical model (PCSWMM) to carry out your ProjectWork and assess the adequacy of the existing drainage infrastructure for flood and water quality fora single event.
In this work, we pretend to perform an analysis of a drainage system for a given field in two situations, the terrain undeveloped and a developed land were compared. For it, is modeled on the software SWMM with the given boundary conditions and three different designs storm. It aims to highlight the negative impact of urban development on the natural ecological balance. In this paper we will learn to model a proper drainage system in the SWMM as well as the importance of good design of urban drainage. We learn the various parameters used by the program and see the influence in differents types of soils.
A drainage system is one whose main function is to allow the withdrawal of the waters that are located on the ground surface, causing inconvenience either agriculture or urban areas or roads. The source of water can be:
Mainly, the drainage system comprises a network of channels that collect and lead water elsewhere, outside the area to be drained, preventing the entry of external water. Typically these systems are necessary in the wide estuaries of large rivers and valleys where natural drainage is poor.
The network of canals or ditches should be periodically cleaned, removing the mud that is deposited in them and weeds growing on the bottom and on slopes, otherwise the water flow would be changed very easily and the system efficiency is lost.
It means urban drainage systems a set of actions, materials or not, designed to avoid, as far as possible drainage, stormwater cause damage to persons or property in the cities or hinder the normal development of life urban.
Within the term " storm water " are understood not only caused precipitation falling directly on urbanized areas that make up the population, but also those that precipitate onto other areas, but drift across the city either by natural channels, artificial conduits just along its surface.
It is known the tendency of population displacement from rural to urban areas. That is why the management urban stormwater is gaining importance in recent years.
Stormwater Management Definition: it refers to a group of techniques used to mitigate the undesirable effects produced by the quantity and quality of urban runoff, known as sustainable urban drainage systems (SUDS) in the UK, the Best Management Practices (GMP) in the US, Water Sensitive Urban Drainage (WSUD) in Australia.
The need to address the management of rainwater from a different perspective conventional, combining hydrological, environmental and social aspects, he is beingrapidly increasing worldwide use of sustainable urban drainage systems.
The actions that the definition of urban drainage system is concerned, are all measures, material or otherwise, that make up a drainage system. These actions can be of two types: preventive, which reduce damage by proper administration of the uses of urban areas potentially subject to them; and corrective, relieving those you damage in areas where measures of preventive insufficient practical purposes, actions involving the construction of a hydraulic work, or other dimensions and characteristics are not changed for hydraulic reasons, are corrective remaining are considered preventive.
As a result of the above, the most common corrective actions are: regulation and reservoir works; canalization and rectifications natural channels; Driving works , such as canals and pipes; and related issues such as and sinks, sinks, sewers, clarifiers or modifications of sections and plotted on streets and avenues works; and themselves the most common preventive actions shall consist of the conservation and protection of the tributary watersheds, regulating land use, regulation of buildings (such as minimum levels or use of basements and ground floors), the forecast floods; The acquisition of flood-prone areas , education and adequate information of the inhabitants of the city, and regulation of the use of the roads .
As mentioned earlier, migration to the cities has negatively influenced, forcing seek an environmental approach in managing urban drainage.
The urban development alter substantially the hydrology of the basins where it is produced. In particular, the drainage network and the process of rainfall-runoff transformation change. As a result of the urbanizing activity, natural streams that formed the original river system are usually profoundly altered, which directly affects their ability to drain and therefore favors the existence of flooding. Rain runoff transformation is altered as a result of the traditional criterion present in many processes of urbanization: rainwater must be eliminated as efficiently and quickly as possible. This involves avoiding temporary surface retention and infiltration, as well as increase the speed of movement of water into the lower parts of the basin. This dynamic gives the final result which drainage networks such low parts being subject to hydrographs more volume (greater runoff coefficient), higher peak flow and increased sharply (less time between the onset of rain and presentation maximum flow, decreased attention span).