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The first paragraph should have a thesis statement, all other paragraphs should have topic sentences. Information needs to be from  "respectable" sources. I need quotations used in the essay from those sources. The essay must be written from 15 different sources and I want those 15 sources on the work cited page.


1.0 Thesis statement:

Dairy farming is one of the biggest elements in the agricultural sector. Dairy based products like milk, ice-cream, butter, yogurt and many others are widely used in daily life by the people across the globe. People enjoy these products. However, there exist certain inhumane practices in dairy farming. Cows gets treated in a brutal manner by agricultural firms in order to get the most out of these animals for earning revenues. This has encouraged the researcher to conduct a study on dairy farming.

The researcher believes that:

"Dairy based products have good number of alternatives and therefore dairy based products need to be substituted by these alternative options to ensure humanly treatment to cows".

The current study is mainly aimed at exploring the treatment of cows in both preindustrialization & industrialization ages followed by identification of suitable alternatives to dairy products that can help in reducing the inhumane treatment made to cows in the industrialization era.

Therefore, the key objectives of the current study are mentioned below:

To examine the treatment of cows in both pre-industrialization and industrialization era To identify alternatives to dairy products The current study is pivotal as it can help in creating awareness regarding the inhumane and brutal dairy farming practices made to cows along with identifying alternatives to dairy products.

2.1 Pre-industrial period:

In the modern world of advanced technologies, companies, big industrial firms, and computer based systems it is quite difficult to image a time when there was no grocery shop, no gadets, no internet, no shopping malls, and no vehicles. In this context, Björk and Pettersson stated that preindustrialization period refers to time before industrialization had started (124-125). In other words, pre-industrialization period can be considered as a period when no machine,

mechanization and manufacturing process existed. As regard to the economics, majority of the activities in the pre-industrialization age existed at the substantial level. It means that at that times people used to produce goods for own consumption or for the consumption by the family due to absence of trade and commerce. In such a subsistence lifestyle, most of the goods were produced by the family and for the family (Adhikari, et al. 96). For example, a farmer grew crops to meet family needs for consumption and for selling in the market. Here, it is important to note that the pre-industrialization period is characterized by poor infrastructural development as most of the people used to live in rural areas.

However, in addition to the subsistence level living, there were some people who used to offer goods and services to other people within the community but such goods and services were not developed through huge plants and machineries. At that time, the concept of industry was confined within the four walls of house of a person. For example, men used to make and sell horseshoes using own barns to the neighbors.

2.2 Industrialization age:

The age of industrialization seems to have begun since 18th or 19th century during the world of America and Europe started moving from rural farming towards industrialized lifestyle, cities and economic activities. This change in the society marked the emergence of industrialization age. In this context, Szentléleki, et al. stated that the age of industrialization indicated a transformation in the society from an agricultural society into a new society based on manufacturing of products and services (188). In fact, the economic activities began to shift from the rural countryside towards the industrialized cities with the rise of industrialization. This can be explained by the fact that with the onset of industrialization many farmers began to realize that they were getting higher pay by working in new factories and industries. The move from
rural areas to the cities is termed as urbanization.

2.3 The key difference between pre-industrialization and industrialization era:

In the view of Pontzen, et al. the basic difference between pre-industrialization and industrialization age is related to the motives of human beings (1366-1369). The principle motive of people during pre-industrialization era was to fulfill personal needs of consumption. This can be viewed as a basic motive for living a life in the society (Lim, et al. 94). On the contrary, the basic motive turned into a commercial one during the industrialization age. In this age, the basic requirements of the people were extended towards earning money through trade and commerce. The concept of profit and savings cropped up in the society. Development of lifestyle and the society at large became a key concern.

3.1 Treatment of Cow in the pre-industrial era:

Around 20 billion gallons of milk are produced by the American dairy industry on an annual basis.This volume of milk is further processed and sold to the customers in the form of icecream,butter, cheese, fluid milk and others. The amount of revenue generated from this activity is around USD27 billion every year. Ventura, et al. stated that the total number of dairy firms operating in the US can be estimated between 65,000-81,000 but still corporate consolidation indicates that around 50% of the total milk production is generated by only 4% of the total number of dairy farms (6105). One can see a large number of labels and brands on the shelves of retail stores that indicate a large number of sources for the milk and milk based products.However, Shahid, et al. mentioned that in reality majority of the brands related to dairy products are owned by only a few number of large companies (4401-4403). For example, “Dean Foods”
which is the largest dairy producing company in the US owns around 40 brands out of which 3 represent organic milk. Thus, commercialization plays a string role in the functioning of the dairy industry in the US.

Cow has been one of the vital animals amongst all others to the people since the   preindustrialization age. This is because of various natural products that can be obtained from a Cow and in addition the products are considered as good for human health. In the preindustrialization

era, people mainly used to have cows for multiple reasons. The two major uses of Cows are discussed in this section. Firstly, Cows were seen as a source of milk. Cows were milked to meet consumption needs of the family. This was during the initial pre-industrialization era but with the progress of time certain developments took place and people began to find more use of a Cow. For example, earlier people used to milk cows but later those milk were converted into other products like butter, ghee and cheese to name a few. These increased the choice of products that people could obtain from a Cow. On the other hand, Grandin observed that cow dung was used as a main source of fuel by the people in the pre-industrialization era (421). The cow dung were dried in sunrays and then were used as a fuel for cooking. Holloway,Bear and WilkinsonIn mentioned that the pre-industrialization stage, people owned cows and were focused on increasing the number of cows through natural breeding (133). People used to consume products obtained from cows but could not think of rearing cows to consume beef based meal. In addition, no artificial means were used to get higher benefits from the cows like injections and others. Thus, the treatment towards cows in the pre-industrialization period can be considered as more humane. People used to have a separate covered place for cows within the boundary of one’s own premises. Cows were taken for grazing during morning and afternoon on a daily basis. Cows were milked once in the morning and once in the after-noon. People used to take care of this animal like a member of the family.

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