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Health Topic: Type 2 diabetes mellitus among old age people over 65 years in Australia.


Diabetes is a life-long ailment that impacts the glucose handing capacity in a person’s body. It has been noted that Type 2 diabetes affects people in various age-groups all over the world. There were reportedly 15% of people over 65 years of age who self-reported their diabetic condition (Figure 1), as per the ABS 2011–12 Australian Health Survey. Having said that, the report stated that there were an average of 849,000 adults above 18 years of age, who reported about their diabetic condition. According to the survey, the rate of reporting among Australian men (5.4%) is higher as compared to women (4.2%). This rate also varies according to the area of living. Like the reporting rate is found to be higher in inner regions (5.5%), while in major cities only 4.8% people report about their disease.

Figure 1: Self-reported popularity of type 2 diabetes among adults in Australia, by sex and age, 2011–12

The purpose of this literary review is to analyze a range of health promotion policies which have been implemented to enhance Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus treatment uptake. This literature review was drafted around a schema that studies the health promotion procedures on a critical approach to fuse concise data pertaining to the health promotion procedures, its validity in a specific topic, in the context of theories and constructs used. The methodology provides a brief outline of literature search and the justification for selection and exclusion of research articles. The result section provides a summary of the whole literature that analyses drive, background, theories, strategies, assessment and applicability in a specific health topic. An inclusion/exclusion methodology was applied. The review strategy discovered that the conventional approaches for reducing Type 2 Diabetes reporting rates were health awareness, provider-based methodologies and communication strategies.



This section defines the search strategy, choosing and exclusion criteria followed in this review and kinds of studies reviewed. An in-depth literature search has been conducted through library data bases with the help of different academic databanks. The articles included are randomized control tests, case studies, peer reviewed journals, case series and comparative analyses on the chosen health topic. The inclusion criteria was restricted to studies within last six years, studies conducted within Australia, and researches of academic and government health units. However, a few older studies have also been used.

The evaluative methods employed in this research included questionnaires. The participants included are adult male and female Indigenous population in Australia, who are over 65 years of age. A number of interviews were also conducted among people of this age-group, so as to understand how the people coped with this ailment. The interventions observed are culturally suitable services and policies applied in the Indigenous population. The health promotion strategy results evaluated on the basis of data contributed to better disease management, improved attitude of individual and family towards diabetes and better preventive strategies.


It is still unclear as to what causes type 2 diabetes . Type 2 diabetes also provides strong genetic in addition to spouse and kids related risk factors . This review laid emphasis on literature in context of reducing the occurrence of type 2 diabetes among people over 65 years of age in Australia to minimize the risk of the health condition through culturally appropriate health and social welfare policies. From the extensive volume of materials that were studied for the purpose of this research, 15 peer reviewed articles (the most relevant) were chosen, and the review spanned across different themes.

Later on it was reviewed that diabetic patients should change their lifestyle, increase intake of nutritional food and especially dietary fiber in order to cope with this condition. Diabetes makes the bone very week and this increased the chances of fracture among older patients and many other complications. Hence diabetic patients should take care of their diet. In this paper, the relation between diabetes and kidney disease has also been reviewed. Diabetic patients of type 2 diabetes have been selected to examine CKD (chronic kidney disease) among them. The results were positive.

It has also been observed that diabetes led to the failure of the treatment of worm infection. This study was conducted on older as well as middle aged people and showed the positive results .

However type 2 diabetes statistics in elderly indigenous population is a broader theme that has direct or secondary relationship with the national culture, life, values and beliefs. Only few researches discuss the effectiveness of a medico-pharmacological approach in the reduction of cases of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. A chunk of the literature suggests the need for holistic and environmental approach to decrease the number of cases. Some of the articles stressed on the change in lifestyle, which has a direct relationship with the high rate of type 2 diabetes in those above 65 years of age. Hospital and primary health articles were found beneficial in discussing various factors which could slow down the instances of type 2 diabetes.

Studies have also revealed that there is a close link between the occurrence of type 2 diabetes and the increasingly sedentary lifestyle of the citizens of Australia. Research has also proven that physical inactivity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and the use of steroids could also be responsible for the increase in the cases of type 2 diabetes among citizens over the age of 65 years of age. Keeping in mind the alarming rates of diabetes occurrence among people of an older age group, it is necessary for the government to take the necessary steps to ensure that those rates are brought under control. Also, in order to cope with the current situation of diabetes among the elderly, it is necessary that there be provision for optimum healthcare facilities that can help the patients cope with the condition, without letting it affect their routine in a negative way. 


This strategic literature review focuses on the literature, the possible causes, and the effectiveness of current health policies in context of type 2 diabetes cases among people above the age of 65 years in Australia. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus can be quite high in Australia. The state is at risk to an episode with critical diseases, and has any health marketing project to improve treatment in addition to management involving type several diabetes amid adults over 65 years of age. This report searched for current proof of health marketing strategies that have been used in the Australian in addition to International setting to face this difficulty. The research methodology involved an inclusion/exclusion criteria for getting data in addition to results were being analyzed having a public wellness interventions Schema as well as the Australian Center with regard to wellness promotion. Results indicate substantial evidence for political in addition to provider primarily based interventions. Additionally, a clear link was observed between the instances of type 2 diabetes among the elderly and the increased inactivity, high blood pressure levels, high cholesterol levels and so on. Conversation techniques, like the growth involving trustful man relationships, were considered a crucial intervention for addressing health insurance and psychological limitations to diabetes. The findings on this review may be used to develop an ecological based mostly health marketing project for the Australian adults preceding 65 years . 

However, the alarming rise in the cases of type 2 diabetes among the elderly in Australia is a warning bell for steps to be taken to ensure that this rise is curbed. Research has indicated that dietary and lifestyle changes could be used to bring the instances of this disease under control. Government initiatives such as workshops and other such educative media could be used to guide citizens as to how they can steer clear of this disease. Overall, the research was able to substantiate the belief that the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes in Australia was in fact linked to a number of dietary and lifestyle factors. It is necessary that dietary and lifestyle changes be made in order to bring these statistics within range again. Exercise must be made an integral part of the lifestyle of the patient. In terms of diet, the patients must be educated to consume whole grains and fresh fruits and vegetables instead of processed, sugary foods. 


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