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    Pathophysiology Assignment Help

    Introduction
    Pathophysiology – as the name suggests, is the amalgamation of two medical terms and functions, viz. pathology and physiology. This stream of medical science deals with the certain functional changes in the physiology of human body that occurs due to certain illness or bodily injury. Thus, two separate streams of medical field are involved in pathophysiology. This field of study deals with the progress of the disease by studying symptoms and their intensities. Hence, pathophysiology helps the medical practitioners to undertake proper treatment procedure depending on the symptoms and their extensions. Gaining in-depth knowledge on pathophysiology of a disease or injury helps the doctors to identify the severity of the problem and how the patient is responding to the treatment procedure. Apart from doctors, other people involved with medical practice like nurses and medical technicians also need to understand the subject thoroughly, because the supporting medical experts like nurses can contribute their opinions regarding the current condition of patients by observing the pathophysiological condition of the patients. Their opinions make doctors’ job easier and faster.

    Pathophysiology: A part of nursing

    A nurse plays a significant role in the treatment procedure for a patient undertaken by the visiting doctor. Apart from taking care of the patient, the nurse also records various signs and symptoms visible in the patient. Depending on the observational records of a nurse, a doctor fixes his treatment procedure and applies medicines accordingly. That is to say, a nurse needs to be very good in detecting physical abnormalities in a patient. Here lies the importance of pathophysiology. A professional grasp on pathophysiology helps a nurse to detect physiological abnormalities quite easily. Moreover, nurses having good knowledge and experience in pathophysiology helps a doctor’s job much more timely and accurate. Clinics, hospitals or any other medical facilities employing nurses possessing pathophysiologic expertise get overwhelming popularity from the citizens.
    Pathophysiology is the basis of nursing practice. Anatomy and physiology teaches a nursing student to understand how the body functions when there is no problem in the body and pathophysiology teaches how the body works when things are going wrong. Thus, pathophysiology makes a nurse a perfect professional and a reliable support for a doctor and a patient. Nurses having good hold on pathophysiology can promptly detect immediate problems their patients are facing and whether it is necessary to call the attending doctors or not.

    Application of pathology
    Pathology is an important part of medical science. Pathology is that part of treatment which takes into account four parts of a disease – cause of the disease, pathogenesis of the disease, changes in organic functionalities, and outcome of those functional changes in the body. Simply speaking, pathology is concerned with the analysis of physical abnormalities in a human body which is caused due to infectious, non-infectious diseases or due to some external injury. Pathology has a number of divisions which are required to understand its applications –

    1. Anatomical Pathology - This branch of pathology comprises of the investigation of surgical samples removed from the body or occasionally the investigation of the whole body, i.e. the autopsy to examine and diagnose disease. Anatomical pathology is further sub-divided into several other branches such as histopathology, surgical pathology, cytopathology etc.
    2. Clinical Pathology - This branch of pathology undertakes analysis of different body fluids such as blood, urine or other fluids and bodily tissues for the diagnosis of disease. This branch is further sub-divided into chemical pathology, hematology and immunology.
    3. Molecular Pathology – This is comparatively a newer branch of pathology which focuses on diseases at microscopic levels. Thus, diagnosis of a disease largely depends on the pathological examinations. Hence, its application is inevitable in detection of any disease and reasons behind bodily disorders.

    Some important terminologies and their applications


    Mechanisms of Pathogenesis – It signifies a biological mechanism that helps the medical practitioners to understand the state of a disease. Some times more than one mechanism is applied to detect the origin, development and progress of a disease in human body. It also determines the ‘state’ of the disease, i.e. whether it is acute, chronic or recurrent.
    Neuropathophysiology – It is the pathophysiology of human nervous system. Pathophysiology deals with the physical changes due to a disease or injury, in the similar way neuropathophysiology is a special branch of pathophysiology that deals with the changes or abnormalities in functionality within the nervous system due to certain physiological problem.
    Diseases of sensation and motor control – Human rely on senses to adjust with different environment or objects. But, that sense may be impaired due to different types of diseases like spinal cord injury, diabetic neuropathy, head injury, intracerebral hemorrhage, delirium, and intracranial hemorrhage etc. On the other hand, motor control diseases are certain types of progressive diseases that damage motor neurons. Motor neurons control voluntary muscular activities which functions during speaking, walking, breathing etc. Progressive bulbar palsy, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Progressive muscular atrophy, and Spinal muscular atrophy etc. are some of these diseases.
    Review of Autonomic NS, Trauma, toxins & stroke – Automatic NS controls the muscular movements of internal organs.
    Trauma is psychological response to an unwanted situation that causes mental and physical hazards. Accident, sudden shock, natural disaster etc. cause trauma.
    Toxins are the poisons derived from plant or animal body that harms one or more physical parts and organs.
    Stroke is the sudden death of brain cells due interruption in blood flow in the brain.
    Reproductive Pathophysiology – It is that branch of pthophysiology that deals with the functional changes and disorders in reproductive organs in human especially in female reproductive organ. Disorders of the female reproductive system can arise due to disease in the ovaries, the uterus, the fallopian tubes, the cervix, the vagina, or the breast.
    Male and Female reproductive function – Male or female reproductive functions are different. Male reproductive system produces sperm to fertilize an egg available in female reproductive system, whereas female reproductive system produces egg and also protects the embryo until birth.
    Pregnancy and infertility – After an egg is fertilized in a female reproductive system, it takes almost nine months to develop an embryo and separate out from the mother’s body. This whole process of development of embryo into a fetus is called pregnancy.
    Infertility is the inability of a woman to conceive even after getting sufficient sperm over a period of time.
    Diseases of digestive system – Various diseases affect human digestive system. Many symptoms may indicate problems in GI track, such as blood in stool, bloating, constipation etc. Diseases in this part may be acute, chronic or repetitive in nature. Diseases like GERD, Gallstone, Crohn’s disease, Celiac disease, Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Ulcerative Colitis, and Anal Fissure etc. are frequently occurring diseases in digestive system.
    Diseases of the Pancreas and Liver – Pancreas are an organic gland located just below the stomach. Pancreas plays a vital role in controlling blood sugar level. Some common diseases in pancreas are pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, and pancreatic cancer. On the other hand, liver is the largest organ in human body which is located in the upper right portion of human body. Liver has multiple functions in metabolism. Some common liver diseases are hepatitis, cirrhosis and liver cancer.
    Endocrine Pathophysiology - Endocrine system relates to all the glands that produce hormones and other chemical substances that are necessary to regulate various body functionalities. These glands may sometimes perform disorderly thereby causing severe mild to severe problem in other systems. Pathophysiology for endocrine detects dysfunctional glands which are causing physical problems.
    Disorders of growth and metabolism – The pituitary gland in the brain secrets growth hormones, which stimulate tissues in the bones, muscles and brain to grow with age. Growth disorders signals problem in hormonal secretion or any other diseases. On the other hand, disorder in metabolism stems out from problems in enzymatic secretion.
    Stress and disorders of the adrenal glands – The adrenal glands are located in the upper part of both the kidneys in human body. Cortisol and sex hormones are secreted by these glands. Cortisol controls stress and many other physiological and psychological functions in the body. Disorder in adrenal glands may be due to many reasons like effect of medicines, infections, dysfunction of other glands etc.
    Disorders of calcium metabolism – This problem occurs when calcium level in the body decreases or increases remarkably. Homeostatic regulation sustains serum levels, intracellular levels, and optimal mineral content in bone. Control of calcium level takes place at three major organs – bone, kidney, and the intestine through the complex combination of parathyroid hormone and vitamin D.
    Alterations in hematological function – Hematology is the study of different functions of blood and its effects on human health and diseases. Alternations in hematological functions occur due to certain changes in body caused by infectious or non-infectious diseases or external injuries. Such alternations may have prolonged effect on normal functioning of RBC, WBC, platelets and lymph nodes etc.
    Alterations in cardiovascular function – Cardiovascular system consists of heart, blood and blood vessels. Cardiovascular function may get disrupted due to several reasons. It may be dysfunctional heart or some other problems in blood or blood vessels. High blood cholesterol, hypertension, pulmonary embolism etc. cause alterations in cardiovascular functions.
    Alterations in pulmonary function – Alterations in pulmonary functions occur due to development of different chronic complications. Some frequent outcomes of alterations in pulmonary functions are asthma, chronic bronchitis, pulmonary fibrosis, dyspnea etc. These kinds of health issues are often life threatening, thus needed immediate investigation and treatment.
    Alterations in uro-renal function – Dysfunctional kidney and liver are the primary causes of alterations in uro-renal functions. Problems in hormonal secretion, side-effects of medications, urinary infection, renal lithiasis, and aging etc. are the primary causes of alterations in uro-renal function. In some instances, obstructive disorders may also form such disorders. Obstructions may occur due to many reasons like congenital malformations, stones, abdominal tumor and prostrate etc.
    Alterations in gastrointestinal function – Primary causes of alterations in gastrointestinal function are disorders in esophagus, stomach and intestines. Again such disorders are primarily caused by different gastrological issues arise out of poor eating habit, side-effect of medicines, pollution and some psychological disorders. Chronic disorders in gastrointestinal function may lead to problems in heart, liver and kidneys.
    Alterations in hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic function – Alternations in hepatic, biliary and pancreatic functions may be life threatening. Liver performs many important functions in the metabolic system of human body. On the other hand, biliary tree consists of liver, gallbladder and bile ducts. Bile is secreted from the bile duct and reaches in liver and gall bladder where the juice has immense importance. Pancreas also remains responsible for some endocrine function and exocrine functions. Hence, alterations in functions in all these organ systems lead to severe physiological disorders.
    Alterations in musculoskeletal function – Musculoskeletal system in human body provides necessary protection of internal organs from injuries and also helps in functional movement of each body parts. Alterations in musculoskeletal function may occur due to fracture of a bone or damage to muscles. Different other internal disorders may be resulted from these alterations.
    Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome and Shock - Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome or MODS is a severe physiological condition when more than one organ fail to perform properly. The failure takes place with time and the condition progresses as the time passes. MODS is a process rather than a sole event. Alteration in organ function varies widely – it may be mildly dysfunctional to entirely unalterable organ failure. MODS lead to major clinical impact on the patient including mental shock and tension.


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